Consequences that learners face out of school or college
Consequences that learners face out of school or college
Education; is a process of facilitating learning and acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, behaviors, norms and habit, which can be transferred from one generation to another (UNICEF,
2000). School is any institution at which instructions are given in a particular discipline (thefreedictionary.com).
Examples of school are, O-level school, and A-level school. Learner is a person who is trying to gain knowledge or skill in something by practicing, or being taught (ell.stackexchange.com). Then when the learner is out of school or college campus, he/she can encounter the following problems parallel with their preventive measures as follow;
Family conflicts and divorce; these are misunderstandings that occurs between family members especially mother and father. These incidences may lead separation of the parents as well as children. Children living in a family environment marked by frequent intense and poorly resolved conflicts between parents are at a greater risk for deficits in academic achievement than children living in more positive family environments (Acs, 2007).
Divorce can have both physical and mental effects on children. The health consequences of divorce are also well documented, showing the detrimental effects of divorce on both somatic and mental health with the divorced or separated experiencing higher levels of depression, stress, and fear, as well as lower levels of self-esteem.
Preventive measures: As a counselor you should advise the parent on the following ways; Parents should not engage in family conflict, but in case if the conflict outbreak they must ensure that their conflicts must not happen in front of their children in order to prevent them from unnecessary depression and sadness that may negatively affect them both academically and well-being.
They must maintain and strengthen their relationship rather than “winning” the argument, be respectful of the other person and his or her viewpoint. According to Ongoma, & Silsil 2008, School counselor should work hand to hand with parents to ensure that education on the conflict matters is made clearly and hence show them how family conflicts may affect the academic carrier of learners. Also
education should be clear to the learners such that must focus on their studies rather than engaging on parental conflict matters. This will keep them away from any problems which would happen if the children engage on parental conflict matters.
Socio-economic status; family background is the key to a student’s life and outside of school, is the most important influence on the student learning including factors such as economic status of the family. The environments at home are the primary socializing agent and influence the child interest in school and aspiration for the future. According to William,2002, he argued that, “The socio-economic status of a child is most common determined my combining parent’s education level, occupational status, and income level”.
Preventive measures: Prior- preparation of the finance to enhance the child’s educational achievement and well-being; it is obvious that most of the family particularly in the third world countries, the economic situation is extremely worse to the extent that they fail even to grant their children to the best level of education. According to William,2002, the economic level of the family is of great influence to the educational development and achievement of the student.
This is absolutely true due to the fact that poor family (with negligible per capital income) with a form six student cannot real afford to sponsor their children to achieve his/her educational dreams. It is due to the fact that most of the High school subjects especially the science subjects requires much fund to attend extra studies.
This is due to the inadequacy of science subject teachers in developing countries like Tanzania. So the family should take early preparation to fund the child in order to avoid unnecessary psychological torture to the learner that may lead to their negative academic achievement and well-being.
Provision of guidance and counseling to the family members; The family with a learner or student through the school board of counseling, should receive guidance in the way to talk to the learner in reply to the financial complaints.
Negative peer pressure; peer groups are an important socialization agent. Participating in peer group activities is a primary stage of development and adolescents’ identities are often closely associated with that of their peers (Arnett, 1992). Because peer groups are a key part of the developmental process they can have a negative effect on young people due to peer pressure and conformity.
According to Santor ,2000,…higher degree of peer pressure, which is the pressure from others to participate in certain activities, and peer conformity which is the degree to which an individual adopt action that are sanctioned by their peer groups, have been shown to increase the likelihood of risk taking behavior such as substance abuse and sexual activity.
Preventive measures: you may have heard the expression, “you’re only as a good company you keep” and in reality that statement is true. If you have friends or family member who pressure you to use alcohol or drugs avoid them (Arnett, 1992). Make new friends who practice healthier habit, who do well in school, and who are motivated at work and who have goals.
Problem: Partying in itself is not a problem. Parties can be a great way for students to blow off steam. However, sometimes partying can cause problems. Drugs and alcohol can lead to poor choices, risky behavior, health risks, and even potentially deadly situations (Arnett, 1992). Having sex without sober consent and without taking the necessary precautions can be traumatic, dangerous, and even criminal.
Preventive measures: While parties are important, enjoy them in a responsible and legal way so you don’t create problems for yourself or others. Know your limits. Ask for a ride home if you’ve been drinking (Eccles, 2003). Keep track of your friends and make sure they’re being safe, too. Make sure to eat and drink enough water when consuming alcohol. Carry a condom. Understand what it means to have “affirmative consent.” While
parties can be a great way to blow off steam, partying can also become a major problem in college.
Problem: Relationships are good, but they can be overwhelming. Sometimes they take a lot of time and can begin to intrude on your education. There are times in every relationship when a couple will have a disagreement which can distract them from schoolwork and add to stress levels. Break-ups can drive some students even further into depression (Eccles, 2003).
Preventive measure: Relationship advice is hard to give, since the solution varies on a case-by-case basis. Establish a clear communication of your needs and expectations from the outset. If you do break up, consult with a school counselor to work through the experience (Eccles, 2003).
The most preventive measure is abstain from intimacy relationships of which when you engage it is difficult to leave otherwise stresses and depressions may arise which intrudes one’s educational development and well-being of an individual.
Bad tradition believes and conducts; the transmission of customs or beliefs from generation to generation, or the fact of being passed on in this way. From the point of view that culture is the total way of life for any individual, there are different customs and beliefs that seem to be bad. Bad customs and beliefs are as follows;
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons (Simister, 2010). Child sexual abuse, early marriage or being forced to marry, early child bearing, priority of access to male than female. Honor killings, where men kill girls in the name of family ’honor’, for example for having sex outside marriage, or refusing an arranged marriage.
All of those practices causes problems to learner especial girls and hence contribute to the negative effects on their studies and well-being.
Preventive measures: Also education should be provided to the society on the problems caused by bad traditions and customs and hence giving appropriate measures to be taken. Simister, 2010, made a number of recommendations, including action research to identify the best approaches to apply to specific situations with regards to traditionally condoned forms of violence, ensuring government engagement at both policy and program levels in order to make a sustained intervention that reaches the entire population, and training law enforcing agents on violence prevention and management.
States Parties should take all effective measures to eliminate all acts and activities which threaten the right to life of adolescents, including honor killings. The Committee strongly urges States Parties to develop and implement awareness-raising campaigns, education programs and legislation aimed at changing prevailing attitudes, and address gender roles and stereotypes that contribute to harmful traditional practices (Simister, 2010).
Furthermore, States Parties should facilitate the establishment of multidisciplinary information and advice centers regarding the harmful aspects of some traditional practices, including early marriage and female genital mutilation.
The problems that are faced by learner out of school, are not the only factors that can lead to the profound effect on learners educational performance and well-being, but also there are in-school or college problems that may affect the learner’s educational performance and well-being such as; Bad student-teacher relationship, insufficient learning and teaching material, low level of motivation from teachers, teacher-student love affair, and teachers’ competence.
Therefore for the sake of student’s academic performance and well-being, regular guidance and counseling should be conducted to both, parents, teachers and students in order to avoid such problems to occur either out or in the school or college