Importance of Career Guidance and Counseling to Special Needs Education
Counseling is the service offered to the individual who has problems and needs professional help to overcome it (Oladejo, 2015:12). The problem keeps him disturbed high strung and under tension and unless solved his development is hampered or stunted.
Counseling therefore is a more specialized service requiring training in personality development and handling exceptional groups of individuals. According to Willey and Andrew Counseling involves two individuals one seeking help and other a professionally trained person helped solved problems to orient and direct him to words a goals.
Special education counseling is a specialization of school counseling that is concerned with the success of special needs students (Okoye, 2015:31). The essential purpose of special education counseling is to ensure that special needs students and their families have access to the appropriate supports and interventions in order to facilitate improved achievement in a school environment.
Guidance and counseling, or guidance counseling, refers to the services and programs that promote personal, social, educational and career development (Akinade, 2014:56). The program should align with an organization or institution’s mission.
The major aim of Guidance Counseling Services is to encourage students’ academic, social, emotional and personal development. To reach this aim, guidance counseling services help students get to know themselves better and find effective solutions to their daily problems
Career guidance refer to services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their career.
IMPOTANCE OF CAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING TO INDIVIDUALS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION
To help the students in vocational development, there is an urgent need of introducing and strengthening the counseling service in the schools and colleges of our country to meet the various needs of the students and the educational system (Kolo, 2014:15). Example in the provision of these technique skills to those with special needs will help them in building up a self confidences and removes the barrier towards dependents to others who are seems to be mentally and physically fits.
To help in the total development of the student, Along with the intellectual development proper motivation and clarification of goals and ideas to pupils in conformity with their basic potentialities and social tendencies are important to total development of the student with special needs that individual differences among them are expected, accepted, understood and planned for and all types of experiences in an institution are to be so organized as to contribute to the total development.
It minimize incidence of indiscipline to students with special needs. Students require not only reliable information but also an interesting introspection of those in formations which can solve his personal difficulties (Odu, 2015:71). When a pupil needs intelligent listener who has more experience than the pupil to whom he can recite his difficulties and through which can seek suggestions for his working plan. All these seem to remove and help those people with people with special requirements the ability to deal with difficult concepts.
To ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classrooms, For sure the career guidance and counseling should shows and emphasizes on the advantages of time managements and success attainments for the time utilization to students with special needs education also plays important role to any one in seeking for positive changes, moreover the manner that student spend in their non class hours clearly affects their success in achieving academic competence(Makiude,2016:65).
Students with special needs are advised on how to cope with different situations facing them in their school life(Odu,2015:201), For instance, on how to relate with their peers, Allows students to talk about various things which they feel uncomfortable talking about with their parents which include things like drug abuse. It also allows the students to become better people because they are taught by the counselors about how to behave in a proper manner.
Career guidance and counseling helps students with special needs to learn how to live in harmony with others in the school community and in outside school compounds, in so doing, they also learn to appreciate the people around them and come to harmony with their environment, guidance and counseling is important program in schools (Egbo, 2015:187).
It is the process by which students are given advice on how to deal with emotional conflicts and personal problems both in school and how to incorporate the same in their daily life. Some sessions involve career guidance where students are advised on which courses to do and which jobs to expect when one does a particular course.
Monitoring and encouraging student’s development: Collecting information about students’ development is the content of this heading. Administrative files, Counseling files, report cards, attendance records, parent and teacher conferences, individual counseling sessions with the students, any kind of inquiries or questionnaires that are implemented by the Guidance Counseling Services according to the students’ development are the major factors that are used by the guidance counselors to get to know the students (Odu, 2015:36). These records also used to monitor and encourage students’ development by the guidance and counselors.
Psychological treatment, In high school; the physical, social and emotional changes in adolescence period, in addition to the high academic expectations, make life difficult for the high school students (Okoh, 2015:56). Therefore, the high school counselor meets with the students regularly to check their needs.
The counselor holds counseling sessions according to the needs of the students and sometimes asks for feedback from the teachers and parents to follow up the specific cases. In some situations, the counselor refers the students and their parents to an outside expert. So, the psychological treatment to students with special need will help him/her to success in academic and to make them out of adolescence challenges.
To develop student’s awareness of opportunities in the personal, social opportunities and vocational areas (Egbo, 2015:98). By providing them with appropriate useful information Also guidance and counseling make a students to be active and aware with the various opportunities and some vocational.
These are due to career guidance to the students in which the student (clients) gets helped to choose a best suitable professional to him/her regardless to their disabilities condition. Therefore guidance and counseling help to develop in students an awareness of opportunities in the personal, social opportunities and vocational areas by providing them with appropriate, useful information.
Help students with special needs to develop self positive attitudes. In a career guidance and counseling the individual who have special needs get opportunity for him/her to have confidence and maintaining the positive attitude against his/her disabilities conditions.
Due to these fact the, students with special needs get helped to changes their attitude and successes in their goals .Example, one who has physical disability probably he/ she believes that he /she has nothing to do over the world but from the career guidance and counseling it is possible to change their negative attitude and to become successful in their issues (disability is not inability).
It enables in provision of support services they need to students with special needs. Example, assistive devices such as hearing aids, white cane, wheel chairs. Special education counselors work with special needs students in elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools, to ensure they have the support services that they need in order to achieve their highest potential in the areas of academics, personal and social growth, and career development (Makiude, 2016:100).
This is accomplished by working with students with social, emotional, behavioral, and physical disabilities in a variety of settings, including in one to one counseling, group counseling, in special education classrooms, as well as in regular education classrooms
To help students with special needs to develop skills of self study, self-analysis and self-understanding (Okoye, 2015:104). In a class of special needs students career guidance and counseling is most important to them since it shape the knowledge, skills and self determination, due to career guidance students can choose the suitable skills to him/her self and maintaining the competence on that field hence this it leads to develop skills of self study and making them a good student in competent manner.
Apart from that also counseling procedure make them being have a self determination in all aspect of life. Therefore career guidance and counseling also help students to develop skills of self study, self analysis and self understanding.
Students with special needs get comprehensive pieces of advice on careers, courses and jobs which enable them to have an informed choice on what to do after school.
It allows students with and without special needs to talk about various things which they feel uncomfortable talking about with their parents which include things like drug abuse (Okoh, 2015:87). It also allows the students to become better people because they are taught by the counselors about how to behave in a proper manner.
It enables students undergoing difficulty in their lives have a good place to ask for questions and clarify from the guiding and counseling office. There are some questions that one may find difficult to ask even his/her parents. One can ask any question without fear because the persons in charge are very willing to help.
Guidance and counseling is of paramount importance in effective teaching and learning in special and public schools in Tanzania and globally. It is a transformer, reformer in educational, vocational and socio personal practices in every society.
UNESCO 2002 has recognized the pivotal role which guidance and counseling plays in various spheres of human existence, hence it sponsored the development of training modules for counselors.
Counseling is aimed at helping an individual become aware of himself and his environment and therefore be in a position to choose the right type of behavior, educational, vocational and socio personal in nature. Therefore guidance and counseling no doubt has a lot of roles to play for effective teaching and learning and therefore deserves maximum support of everybody.