Psychodynamic Therapy, demonstrate how to counsel a student with aggressive behavior.
Psychodynamic Therapy for Student with Aggressive Behavior.
Counseling is learning-oriented process which usually occurs in an interactive relationship with the aim of helping the person learn more about the self, about others, about situations and events related to given issues and conditions and also to learn to put such understanding to being an effective member of the society (Mutie and Ndambuki,2002).
Aggression is any behavior that is aimed at harming another person. The term “aggression” encompasses a broad range of behaviors from minor verbal slights to severe physical assaults including; physical aggression, verbal aggression, social aggression, exclusion, bullying, sexual harassment, and racial aggression (Boyd et al, 2008).
Psychodynamic Theory: Sigmund Freud proposed a psychodynamic theory according to which personality consists of the id (responsible for instincts and pleasure-seeking), the superego (which attempts to obey the rules of parents and society), and the ego (which mediates between them according to the demands of reality).
Psychodynamic theories commonly hold that childhood experiences shape personality. Such theories are associated with psychoanalysis, a type of therapy that attempts to reveal unconscious thoughts and desires (Coon and Mitterer, 2007).
Psychodynamic therapy, also known as insight-oriented therapy, it is originated with psychoanalysis, the approach to treatment developed by Freud. Psychoanalysts use techniques such as free association and dream analysis to help people gain insight into their unconscious conflicts and work through them in the light of their adult personalities (Feldman, 2010).
In order to help the client understand what their unconscious disturbances are and how their mind works, psychodynamic therapists tends to draw on similar techniques used in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy. These are listed below:
This technique involves the client talking freely to the therapist – saying the first things that come to mind. There is no attempt to shape ideas before they are said, nor do clients tell things in a linear story structure. The spontaneity allows for true thoughts and feelings to emerge without any concern for how painful, illogical or silly they may sound to the therapist (Rao, 2005).
This is the redirection of feelings for a significant person especially those unconsciously retained from childhood onto the therapist. Clients will often feel an erotic attraction towards their therapist, but this transference can manifest in many other forms such as hatred, mistrust, extreme dependence and rage. Through recognition and exploration of this relationship, the client can begin to understand their feelings and resolve any conflicts with figures from their childhood (Murdock, 2004).
The therapist is likely to stay relatively quiet throughout therapy, but will occasionally interject with thoughts or interpretations of the topics the client chooses to discuss. The application of these interpretations will depend on the therapist’s awareness of the client’s mental state and capacity to integrate material that they are not aware of.
Ultimately; it is up to the therapist to help clients learn new patterns of behavior and ways of thinking that promote personal development and growth helping them to overcome any limitations caused by unconscious feelings.
Generally this process tends to be quick and solution-focused, and sessions will take place once a week, lasting for around 50 minutes. Psychodynamic therapy seeks to resolve more immediate problems (Walsh, 2003).
According to the nature of the work the psychodynamic therapy procedures are going to be used during demonstrations and before that child’s aggressive behavior is identified.
Addressing Child’s Behavior:
The first step to address your child’s aggressive behaviors is figuring out why your child is acting like this. A child can become aggressive for several different reasons.
Some children may exhibit aggressive behaviors because of:
- Insufficient speech development
- Lack of routine
- Being in a stressful situation
- Feeling over-stimulated
- Seeking attention or a desired item
- Trying to escape or avoid certain situations
- Copying other children’s behaviors and actions
Once you have a better understanding on why your child is engaging in aggression, you will be better able to help your child identify more appropriate and non-aggressive ways to work through and solve their problems.
Parents need to make sure to address aggressive behaviors and have their children learn and understand that aggressive behaviors are unacceptable and that there are more appropriate ways to express themselves (Jenkins, 1999).
Gender plays an important role in the identification and production of aggression. Although the development of aggressive behavior problems in girls is similar to that of boys in many respects, it is important to consider boys and girls separately because they demonstrate anger and aggression in different ways. The differences can be considered to be a function of both biology and socialization.
Gender differences in aggression emerge as early as 3 years and remain throughout the age span. These differences are more salient for more severe forms of aggression. Boys’ aggression is more likely to occur through a direct physical or verbal confrontation (e.g., pushing, punching, and making threats of physical harm). Boys tend to exhibit more overt displays of anger than girls (Mwiti, 2005).
Strategies to try when your child is being aggressive:
- Respond Immediately: After a child exhibits an aggressive behavior, make sure that you address the behavior right then and there. You do not want to let time pass to attend to the problem but rather catch the child in the act and give the appropriate consequence for his/her action. By immediately addressing the problem at hand, the child becomes aware that he/she did something wrong.
- Be Consistent: You want to make sure that you are very consistent on how you are addressing the child’s aggressive behaviors; be it at home or in the community. By keeping your response the same, your child will learn and expect what the consequence is for misbehaving. By remaining consistent when addressing aggressive behavior, the child will start to understand that if he/she acts out aggressively, he/she will need to fulfill the consequence for misbehaving.
- Implement Realistic Consequence: Make sure that the consequence the child needs to fulfill is realistic and acceptable for the inappropriate behavior he/she exhibited. If the child is pushing peers on the playground, have the child sit out and watch the peers play for a little. Explain to him/her that once he/she is able to play nicely and not push or hurt the other children then he/she can go back to playing with his/her friends.
- Review and Teach Alternatives: After your child calms down you should review what just happened. Try to talk about and figure out why he/she got so upset and reacted how he/she did. In addition, be sure to discuss how the child could have handled the situation more appropriately and what some better choices would have been for him/her to engage in.
- Stay Calm: While dealing with aggressive behaviors, remember to stay calm. You can address the problem of concern using a calm, natural tone. You do not need to get worked up and scream or yell. By yelling, slamming doors, or hitting, you are setting a bad example for your child. Being able to keep your cool and show him/her how you can handle an upsetting situation appropriately will help him/her to learn from your example.
- Physical Activities: Children love to run and play. Many kids are very energetic, and if they cannot release this energy they can become very aggressive and hard to manage. By providing time for your child to engage in physical activity and exercise it can help him/her stay more regulated and under control.
- Reward Appropriate Behavior: Be sure that you are providing praise for when your child is playing appropriately and demonstrating good behaviors. You do not want to always be focusing on the negative behaviors but need to provide positive feedback for when the child is appropriately interacting with others and solving problems.
- Seek Help: If you are still struggling with reducing the aggressive behaviors your child displays, do not be scared to seek help. Sometimes consulting with a doctor, psychologist, or a behavior analyst is the extra support you need to help get a handle on your child’s aggressive behaviors (Patri, 2005).
- Initial interview to understand the client’s problem
- The client lies on a couch.
- The therapist sits out of sight of the patient; usually behind the client’s head. This practice is intended to minimize the presence of the therapist and allow the patient to engage in free association more easily.
- Getting repressed experience through various techniques like hypnosis and free association to tap Freudian slips, contents of dreams, and thoughts.
Demonstrations techniques to counsel a student with aggressive behavior.
During counseling process, a counselor considering psychodynamic therapy techniques as follows;
- Review any information about the client that you may already have available. Make the client feel comfortable.
- Building a rapport by introducing yourself and shaking hands with the client as well engaging in a bit of small talk. Using this opportunity to know your client and let him/her trust you.
- Ensure confidentiality. Do this first before you start talking about the client’s situation? Show that you intend to work in the client’s best interest by treating him/her with respect.
- Ask the client open-ended questions that provide basic information you need to assist him/her. Look at the problem from the client’s perspective and show him/her that you empathize with him/her situation.
- Give client the chance to explain the situation in his/her own way. Lean slightly forward, take brief notes and nod your head when appropriate to show the client that you are listening. Maintain eye contact to let him/her see that he/she has your attention and you are interested in what he/she is saying.
- Ask the client to clarify any statements that are unclear. As you get to know more about the client and his/her situation, follow up with additional questions that will provide you with more details.
- Watch the client’s body language. Pay particular attention to body posture and facial expressions. Body language can be a clue that a client may not be telling you that entire he is really thinking. Look for signs that may be more upset by a situation than lets on.
- Offer the client a summary of the information you’ve gathered before concluding the interview. Ask if she has other questions or anything more she would like to add. If she/he has no final comments or questions, explain what your next steps will be. Give a time frame in which the client can expect to hear back from you (Hough, 2006).
In counseling student with aggressive behavior using the psychodynamic therapy, teacher is supposed to know the background information of the student so that when he/she is giving counseling can effectively counsel accordingly to help the student to develop self understanding, to make decision and solve problem.